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ISSUES



Violence against Women (VAW): Linkages with Equity and Health

(Collection of Case Studies)
In 1993 the United Nations offered the first official definition of such violence when the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women to Article 1 of the declaration, violence against women includes: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.” 

There is increasing consensus, as reflected in many declarations, that abuse of women and girls, regardless of where and how it occurs, is best understood within a “gender” framework
because it seems in part from women’s and girls’ subordinate status in society. Many cultures have beliefs, norms, and social institutions that legitimize and therefore perpetuate violence against women. Two of the most common forms of violence against women are abuse by intimate male partners and coerced sex, also known as domestic violence, wife-beating, and battering is almost always accompanied by psychological abuse and in one-quarter to one-half of cases by forced sex as well.
Around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Most often the abuser is a member of her own family.

Increasingly, gender-based violence is recognized as a major public health concern and a violation of human rights. The effects of violence can be devastating to a woman’s reproductive health as well as to other aspects of her physical and mental well-being. In addition to causing injury, violence increases women’s long-term risk of a number of other health problems. Yet victims of violence who seek care from health professionals often have needs that providers do not recognize, do not ask about, and do not know how to address.

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गोर्खाल्यान्ड आन्दोलन सन्दर्भमा: मेरो बिचार
लेख: फुर्बा साङ्गे मोक्तान 
मलाई पनि लागेकै हो, अरुको बिषयमा किन बोल्ने? तर आज संसार नै ग्लोबलाईजेसनमा गैसक्यो। राम बहादुरको पिडा, श्याम बहादुरलाई तत्कालै थाहा हुने सम्यन्त्रको बिकास पनि भाईसक्याछ। 


हाम्रो चस्माको लेन्स कस्तो भईदियो भने आफुले जे देख्यो, त्यही मात्र सही। अनि, ठूला बडाले जे भन्यो त्यही ठीक। नराम्रो लाई पनि राम्रोसग नराम्रो भन्न नसक्ने अनि सहीलाई पनि खुलेर समर्थन गर्न नसक्ने। छेपारे पाराको। अनि हरेक बोलिमा लेनदेन अनि फाईदा-बेफाईदाको नजरिया समाबिष्ट हुने। सिधा भन्नुपर्दा हाम्रो नजरमा खोट छ।  हामी लन्डनमा ५ जनाको ज्यान जाने गरी भएको बम आक्रमणलाई रुवाबासी कोलाहल गर्छौ, तर इराकमा, अफगानिस्तानमा मिसाइल आक्रमणलाई खुल्ला स्विकार गर्छौ। दुबैतिरको आफ्नो लजिक होला। तर दुख्ने मन त दुबै अवस्थामा दुख्नु पर्ने होला नि? कसैले आएर तपाईंको घरमा आएर बल प्रयोग गरे के गर्नुहुन्छ? के धुप अगरबत्तीले स्वागत गर्नुहुन्छ? कसैले तपाईंको आत्मसम्मानलाई ठेस पुर्याउछ भने स्विकरोक्ती नै दिएर बस्नुहुन्छ? दमनलाई स्वागत गर्ने तपाईं हामीले याद गर्नु पर्छ, भोली तपाईं हाम्रै पालो आउछ।

गोर्खाल्यान्ड आन्दोलन चलिरहदा दुई बिषयले प्रबेश पाएको छ। पहिलो, गोर्खाल्यान्ड आन्दोलनलाई नेपालको मधेसी आन्दोलनसगको तुलना भने दोस्रो, गोर्खा भन्ने शब्द नेपालको भएकोले गोर्खाल्यान्ड शब्द प्रतिको असन्तुष्टी। दार्जलिङको गोर्खाल्यान्डको मुद्धा नितान्त भारतको हो, यदी देशलाई मात्र आधार मान्ने हो भने। उनिहरुलाई भारतीय हुनुमा गर्ब छ, र हुनु पनि पर्छ। तर त्यो भन्दैमा कसैको पिडामा मलम्पट्टीको दुई शब्द नि खर्च गर्न नमिल्ने हो र? मानबहरुलाई मानबिय ब्यवहार गरी सहभागितामुलक हल निकल्नुको साटो भएको दानबी दमनको बिरोध गर्नु गलत हो र? बरु बहुभाषिक र बहुजातिय समाजमा एउटै मात्र भाषालाई लागेर अरुमाथि दमन गर्नु र गर्न खोज्नु चाँही अपराध हो। हो मलाई दुखेको छ। तराईको रामलाल माथि दमन हुँदा पनि यो म दुखेको थियो भने दार्जलिङको रामबहादुर माथि सरकारी गुण्डाहरुको ज्यादती हुँदा पनि यो मन दुखेको छ। किनकी मानबिय सम्बेदना छन मभित्र।

कोइ माथि उठ्नु भनेको कोइ तल पर्नु हैन। यो दरिद्र मनसिकताबाट हामी सबै माथि उठ्न सक्नु पर्दछ। यसका लागि संसारका जो पनि यस्ता साङ्घातिक दमनको बिरुद्धमा छन, उनिहरु एकठाउमा उभिदा के फरक पर्छ र? पर्दैन भने दार्जलिङको गोर्खाल्यान्डको मुद्धामा पनि सबै एकजुट भएर सदासयता राख्दा केही बिग्रन्न भन्ने पनि बुझौ।  बङ्गाली बोल्ने समुदायमा उर्दु अनिबार्य गरी भाषालाई दमन गर्न खोज्दा सन १९७१ मा उबेलाको पुर्बी पाकिस्तानमा भारी बिरोध-लडाईं भएको र त्यस्को मुल्य देश टुक्राएर (जुन अहिलेको बाङ्लादेश) चुकाउनु परेको यथार्थ हामीसामु छन। त्यसैले, कसैलाई पनि जबर्जस्ती अरुको भाषा लाद्नु हुँदैन। र एउटा देशमा बोलिने भाषा अर्को देशमा बोल्नै हुन्न भन्ने नि सोच्नु हुन्न।   भारतमा नै हेर्ने हो भने पनि बहुभाषिक नागरिकहरु छन। उसो भये के त उर्दु बोल्ने पाकिस्तानी भए? बङ्गाली बोल्ने बाङ्लादेशी भए? अनि तमिल बोल्ने श्रीलङकन भए?

तथ्यङ्कलाई केलाउने हो भने भारतमा मात्र हैन बर्मामा, सिङ्गापुर, मकाउ, लाओसतिर पनि उल्लेख्य नेपालिभाषीहरु छन। तर एसो भन्दैमा ति सबै नेपाली हैनन। नेपालीभाषी भएपनी उनिहरु त्यही देशका नागरिकहरु हुन। आज हिन्दी भाषी करोडौ नागरिक बिदेशी (गैर-भारती) छन। बेलायतमा ईतिहास बनाएका हिन्दी भाषी बेलायतीहरु पनि आफुलाई बेलायती हुन मै गर्ब गर्छन्।  तेस्तै, चिनिया हजुरबुवाका नाति लि क्वान यु ले आधुनिक सिङगापुर बनाए। उनी चिनिया भाषी सिङ्गापुरे भएपनि सधैं सिङ्गापुरे हुनुमा मात्र गर्ब गरिरहे। त्यसैले, कुरा बुझ्ने हो भने सरल छ।

कुरा रह्यो, गोर्खा भन्ने नामको।  भारतले बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन भनेर भन्दैमा के बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन्छन त? चिनले सगरमाथा मेरो हो भन्दैमा उस्को हुन्छ र? यस्ता हौवाहरुको पछी लाग्नुको सट्टा बुद्धको ज्ञान बाढ्ने काममा समस्त नेपालीहरु लागिदिए, बुद्धको ज्ञान विश्वभर फैलन्थ्यो अझ सशक्त भएर, सगरमाथा पनि अझ उचो भएर खडा हुन सक्थ्यो। गोर्खा शब्दमा पनि यदि गोर्खाको उत्पति पनि नेपालको भुमिबाट भन्ने तथा ईतिहासको बहादुरीलाई सशक्त ढंगले विश्वसामु राख्ने हो भने विश्वले चिन्ने अर्को पहिचान अमिट भएर बस्नसक्थ्यो। म त भन्छु, हरेक नेपालीभाषी रहेका देशमा एउटा-एउटा गोर्खाल्याण्ड होस्। जस्ले नेपालको गोर्खे बहादुरिलाई युगान्तसम्म चिनाईराखोस्। विश्वभरका नेपालभाषी गोर्खालीहरुलाई आफ्नो ईतिहासको बोध गराइरखोस्। 
























अन्त्यमा, सदैब दोस्रो दर्जाको नागरिकको हैसियतमा बाच्दै आउनुपरेका भारतीय नेपालीभाषी गोर्खालीहरुलाई बर्षौ पछी फेरि एउटा अबसर दिएको छ।  समर्थन गर्न सकिन्न भने कम्तिमा बिरोध पनि नगरिदिउ। उनिहरु आज आफ्नो भाग्यरेखा कोर्न पुन: एकपटक जुर्मुराएका छन। सदासयता देखाउ। 

(photo credit: google.com)

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हाम्रा रामहरुलाई बनबास जान वाध्य नपार सरकार
लेख: फुर्बा साङ्गे मोक्तान 
भन्ने गरिन्छ नि, अरुको पिडा देख्दा र त्यो पिडा आँफैले भोग्दा कती फरक पर्छ? हो त्यही पिडा बिचबाट गुज्रदैछु म। जीवनको परिभाषा पनि परिस्थिती अनुसार फरक पर्छ भनिन्थ्यो, अनुभूत हुँदैछ। म जीवनप्रति फेरि आशाबादी पनि छु है। आजको दिनसम्म मैले भोगेको जीवनमा कति सानातिना महाभारत र रामायाण गुज्रेहोलान, तैपनि जीवनको अनेक रसायनमा पनि मिठासता खोज्ने बानी परेकै मान्छे हुँ म। 

तर किन हो आज आँफैलाई बनबासको अनुभुति पो हुँदैछ त? प्रसँग बुझ्नु भो भएन? खाडीको तातो गर्मी खाँदै एकाङ्की जीवन बिताउनेको लागि त यो जेल नै पनि बन्न सक्ला। समस्टिमा जो आफ्नोको साथबाट र मामताको काखबाट टाढा दुरदराजको कुनै देशमा छ, चाहे कामका लागि , जाउ, चाहे नामका लागि जाउ, अनि  चाहे शिक्षा, दिक्षा र भिक्षाकै लागि किन नजाउ, आखिर बनबास भन्दा के कम छ र? 

मनमा उब्जिएको प्रश्न हो यो। मनको चेतनाले बोध गरेको छ, ख्याल ठट्टै सही, मनको अन्तरकुन्तरमा डेरा जमाएर बसेको छ। चौधै बर्ष त हैन तर मन चौध बर्ष जत्तिकै पिडामा फसेको छ। "माटोले माग्दैन, आँफैले दिनुपर्छ" भन्ने उक्ती हाम्रै नेपालतिरको हो। तर त्यही माटोको ऋण तिर्न ४० लाख नेपाली जनता तातो भुङ्रोमा शितलता तापिरहेको महसुस किन हुँदैछ? मेरो नेपालमा एउटा गीतको भाका अस्तितिर विश्वभरका नेपालीमाझ असाध्य चर्चित बन्यो। "साहिली, चालिस कटेसी रमाउला...", यो गीतभित्र अथाह समाजशास्त्र लुकेको छ, कस्ले दिशानिर्देश गर्नेतिर लाग्ने खै? देशको सबैभन्दा महान भन्दा पनि महान निकाय त सरकार हो क्यार, ४०औ सरकार नेत्रित्वमा पुगिसकेको अहिलेको बस्तुनिस्ट पारीबेशमा खै कैले रमाउने? सरकारले नि ४० कट्यो, अब आउने होकी हामी नेपाली दाजुभाइ दिदीबहिनीहरुको रमाउने दिन? रोकिन्छ कि त बनबासको यात्रा? 

भारतका बर्तमान प्रधानमन्त्री नरेन्द्र मोदीले आप्नो भाषणमा भन्ने गर्दथे र गर्छन्, "अच्छे दिन आएङ्गे"। सधैं दक्षिणपन्थी सोच राख्ने हामी र हाम्रो सरकारहरुले मोदीजी कै स्लोकलाई सापटी लिएरै भएनी किन भन्न सक्नु हुन्न? "नेपालीले नेपालमै रमाउने दिन आउछ।" 

एउटा कहावत छ नेपालमा, नेपालीहरु रेस्टुरेन्ट छिरेपछी सारा मेनु हेरेर अन्तिममा म:म मगाउछन। नयाँ, पुरानो, थोत्रो जे कुरा गरे पनि हुन त भर्खरैको पहिलो चरनको निर्वाचनले पनि देखाइसक्यो। म:म खाने हाम्रो सन्स्कार जान बर्षौ लाग्छ। तैपनी जून सरकार बनेपानी एउटै नेपाल त हो बनाउने सपना त राख्नै पर्‍यो नि। सपना नि होला, पूरा गर्न जुट्न त पर्‍यो नि। कि सपना पूरा भाको छैन भनेर सुतिरहने?

नेपालमा अब रामहरुले बनबास जान वाध्य पारिन रोकिनु पर्दछ। घरमै अन्न भए, छिमेकमा को माग्न जान्छ र? अपितु, आस गर्नु सिबायको उत्तम बिकल्प पनि त रहेन नि सरकार। त्यसैले, हाम्रा बिरामी हुँदा एउटा सिटामोल खुवाउन आफन्त नहुने परदेशमा जीबन बिताउने बाध्यता अन्त्य गर सरकार। हाम्रा रामहरुलाई बनबास जान बाध्य नपार सरकार। 
(नोट: लेखकिय कुनै ब्यक्ती, पार्टी बिशेष प्रति लक्षित छैन भन्ने बुझियोस।) 

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Population Explosion: Global trend prospects

Written by: Phurba Sange Moktan

Since the history of the human population, population growth has become the key concern among human. During the early phase of human history, the human population was up to the subsistence level. However, with the timeline in the later phases (i.e. after 17th century), the human population has hiked in such a way that population exploded beyond the subsistence level. And, the trends have been emerging.

Here I would like to mention the key factors which have played much to control birth rate in the developed countries are due to aspiration towards the prosperous life of the people and due to urbanization in the developed countries. People choose to get married later and want to take less burden of their children that has directly affected their aspiration and security of lifestyle, as a result, the population is decreasing whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, etc. the aspiration is less due to less education and empowerment level. In addition, majority of the rural population and uneducated mass of the people has less aspiration for growing fewer children. Also, due to less urbanization, they have less mobility, resulting the feeling of low fertility is not so much felt to be required. And, they are contributing to increase the everlasting population explosion.
The table is also the evidence of the global population explosion in everlasting trend. It has shown that if the trend goes like present, by 2050, the global population will reach 9 billion easily. And, by the end of the century, there will be 11.5 billion of human population which is almost devastation towards the carrying capacity of earth from all aspects. And, alone Bangladesh by 2051, 218 million will be the population, which is also indicating that the developing countries population are increasing significantly, though the overall population growth rate and fertility rate is decreasing in trend. And, we have already crossed the global population of 7 billion. What a dilemma!!!

Furthermore, If the population explosion trend is observed, there was only 150 million global population in 1st AD, which is actually almost 1/47th of todays population (i.e. 7 billion). It took around 1350 years to become it double of that 150 million, and again took alomost 450 years to become 900 million (i.e. 0.9 billion.). But since then, the human population exploded in a way that only in 150 years it expanded triple in size, becoming 2.4 billion. And, after 1950, new era has emerged for human population development. 3 decades after that has become the global pandemic in term of population explosion, making 5 billion in 1985. The trend curve has been following in increasing trend to become 6 billion in 1999, 7 billion in 2011. And, it has been predicted that the global population will explode to reach out 8 billion by 2020. (Please see the figure 2)


Similarly, the population explosion can be compared with global and regional level. In global population pie, only China and India has covered almost 40 % of the global population. Bangladesh has also significant contribution, however, in population growth trend, bangladesh has significant achievent, since back in a 1960s. Comparing the population growth of Bangladesh with Nepalese and global context, Bangladesh has achieved significant progress. However, it has still above that global growth rate. The population growth rate of both Bangladesh and Nepal is same i.e. 1.2 in 2015. However, there still need to achieve the growth rate in line with global rate. And, still long way to go!!! (Please see the figure 3)

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...तिमीलाई किन उस्तै लाग्दै छ।
म आकाशमा उड्न खोज्दै थे।। 
जानी जानीकन अप्ठेरो बाटो रोज्दै थे।। 
जिन्दगीको मिठो कल्पना सोच्दै थे। 
म आकाशमा उड्न खोज्दै थे।। 

तिमी कती छिटो पुग्यौ निर्णयमा आज। 
हिजो कती नजिक अनी आज भयौ कती टाढा।। 
आज फिका फिका रङ तर हिजो कती गाढा। 
तिमी कती छिटो पुगौ निर्णयमा आज।। 

बाटो उही छैनन तर तिमीलाई किन उस्तै लाग्दै छ। 
हिजोको मिठो सम्झना आज किन टाढा भाग्दै छ।। 
मेरो मन्ले आज पनि हिजैको याद माग्दै छ। 
बाटो उही छैनन तर तिमीलाई किन उस्तै लाग्दै छ।। 

नोट: कसैको वास्तविक जिबनमा मेल खाएमा सम्योग मात्र हुने। 

रचना मिती: २०७३।०३।०१
बेलुका ८:३६ बजे 

रचनकार: फुर्बा साङ्गे मोक्तान 

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Hat’s off to Shit President: Moti Krishna

Written by: Phurba Sange Moktan
He looks elderly by appearance, but the energy he posses is not less than that of youths. With age, he has crossed more than 5 decades, but he can overtake anyone on foot. At the time people refuse to talk about shit in the village, he became shit president and he is Mr. Moti Krishna Shrestha from Thampaldhap VDC, Sindhupalchowk. He feels pleasure to the chosen one.


About a year ago, VWASHCC has been formulated in the VDC with the facilitation of the local NGO, entitled, CDECF (GSF/UN-Habitat Partner) and the campaign has been initiated in the VDC. Unlikely other local leaders, he found the issue “Open Defecation” as prime concern for the village development and key to make the village clean and healhy. “Nobody wanted to take the lead for the ODF Campaign in the village. Then, I realized if we really expect change then we should take lead. And I took the lead in Thampaldhap as Shit President to clean all the open defecation habits and mindsets of the locals.” He said. Later he convince other political leaders and others to accelerate the campaign in his VDC.

Now the VDC has been declared as ODF with the witness of  DWASHCC representatives on May 23, 2014. And he wishes to march further upto total sanitation. “The campaign has started in our village a year back. It’s not difficult to begin the campaign but to achieve the highest level. I am not gonna stop my efforts; rather continue up to making it a healthy society.” 

Last but not least, “One man can change the society” has been proved in Thampaldhap VDC by Mr. Moti Krishna Shrestha. He along with his team has made 100 % sanitation coverage from zero in the VDC. Out of 713 households, they made to construct/use 397 new toilets just within one year of time. His contribution will be remembered forever in the VDC and the district for his leadership on ODF.

Jay ODF!!!

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Success Tale - "No land, No problem for Toilet"

Written by: Phurba Sange Moktan
Ms. Balkumari Sundas, resident of Damai Tole, Ward-4, Thulopakhar Village Development Committee (VDC) of Sindhupalchowk District, Nepal has not got any problem to build toilet at her home, despite the lack of own land.

She has got triggered to defecate on latrine at her home after the formation of VDC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (VWASHCC) 9 months ago. However, the problem arose to her as she didn’t own any land nearby her home. Then, she got in dilemma. But with the constructive facilitation from VWASHCC/VDC chair in the village, her brother-in-low agreed to provide her family a piece of land to build toilet. “We used to defecate in open. To avoid shame, we used to hide on bushes. Sometimes people have seen us having defecation. Those moments were really shameful moments,” She further added, “Now we don’t need to feel that. Even environment has become clean and flies have reduced much.”

Before building her own toilet, she even used to spend 20 minutes only to go to the bushes/open. Now, she has got permanent and hygienic latrine nearby her home. She has been using the toilet since last 6 months immediate after building it as the Open Defecation Free (ODF) Campaign has become vigorous throughout the Thulopakhar VDC. She herself invested to construct the toilet. She asked her sons working in Kathmandu City to send money and then, she made it possible. Now, she feels very proud, happy and comfort.



72 VDCs of Sindhupalchowk district Thulopakhar VDC has been executing by UN-Habitat, Nepal as part of Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) Program directly through the facilitation of partners such as SEBAC/Janahit, CDECF, CODEF/MANK and SEBAC/SIDEC. CDECF and SEBAC/SIDEC facilitated to form VWASHCC in Thulopakhar VDC about a year ago. After the constant triggering events, monitoring, facilitation and meetings, the VDC has become possible to declare as ODF on January 02, 2014.

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चुनावमा भोट हालियो, अब "गु" लाई पनि चर्पिमा हाले कसो होला?

लेख: फुर्बा सांगे मोक्तान

बिगत केही हप्तादेखी नेपालमा एक किसिमको उल्लास एबम उत्सबको माहोल सिर्जना भएको छ। कारण हामी सबैलाई थाहा छ, दोस्रो संबिधानसभाको चुनाव-२०७०।

एक नेपाली नागरिकको हैसियतले नियाल्दा यस चुनावको आफ्नै राजनैतिक, सामाजिक तथा आर्थिक महत्व मैले पाएको छु, देश को अग्रगामी निकासको लागि। त्यसैले, मैले पनि यस चुनावमा भोट हाले। आशा छ तपाईंहरुले पनि आफ्नो अमुल्य भोट दिनुभयो होला। हामी सबैले हाम्रो भोटबाट दिगो शान्ती एबम बिकासको पारीकल्पना गरेका छौ होला तर एकै छिन बिचार गरौ त हजुरहरु, यदी अझै पनि प्रत्येक ३ मध्ये १ जना ब्यक्ती आधारभुत सरसफाइको पहुचबाट बन्चीत हुन बाध्य छन भने दिगो शान्ती र बिकास कसरी आउन सक्दछ?, जसको कारण ठुलो बिकासे परीयोजना वा सरकारी मोटो योजनाको कमी हुँदै होइन। म यो कुर प्रष्ट पार्न चाहन्छु। बरु साधारण तर महत्वपूर्ण आत्मज्ञानको कमी हो। नैतीकता, प्रतिस्ठा अनि स्वास्थ्यको महत्वलाई आम जनतामाझ उजागर गर्न नसकिएर हो। प्रत्येक १ रुपैया लगानी गर्दा रु ९ बराबरको प्रतिफल प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने ज्ञानको कमिको कारणले गर्दा हो। सदैब घ्रिणाको रुपमा लीइने दिशा (प्रष्ट भाषामा “गु”)लाई सही ठेगान लगाउन नसक्दा घुमिफिरी झिङ्गा, हात, पानी, जनवर, इत्यादीहरुको माध्यमबाट आफ्नै मुखमा पुग्ने गुह्य कुरा नजानिदाको परिणति हो।

तसर्थ, के हामी चुनावमा भोट हालेर नागरिक दायित्व पुरा गर्ने सचेत नागरिकहरु चर्पिमा नै दिशा पिसाब हालेर सभ्य र श्वस्थ नागरिकको पनि परिचय दिने कि? चुनावमा भोट त हालियो, "गु" लाई पनि चर्पिमै हाले कसो होला? आगे सानले भोट खसाल्ने तर ठाउँ कुठाउ ढडालो फर्काउदै हिंड्ने हगन्त नारायण/देवीहरुको जो मुर्जी।।। लौ जा त।

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हिजो त राती के देखे सपना...

लेख: फुर्बा साङ्गे मोक्तान

"हिजो त राती के देखे सपना, मै मरी गएको......."
 

उल्लेखित हरफ नेपालका लेखकिय क्षेत्रका प्रख्यत हस्ती राष्ट्रकवि माधव प्रसाद घिमिरे ज्युबाट लिखित हृदयस्पर्सी गीतको टुक्रा हो। मैले पनि हिजो राती सपना देखे तर म सपनामा मरेको थियिन। बरु खुशीले गद्गद हुँदै पो थिए। सोध्नुहोला किन?

हिजो राती सपनामा मैले नेपालका प्रख्यात राजनैतिक पार्टिहरुले नेपाललाई खुल्ला दिशा मुक्त बनाउन पूर्व मेची देखी पश्चिम महाकालीसम्म बाटइभरी पोस्टर टालेका थिए (अहिलेको चुनाबी अभियान जस्तै गरेर)। नेपाललाई बिकास गर्ने पहिले आधार स्तम्भ मानिएको सरसफाइमा पहुच साच्चै आवश्यक रहेको कुरा ति सबै राजनैतीक दलहरुले महसुस गरेर ब्यानर, तुल र पर्चा पनि ठाउँ नै पिच्छे बाड्दै थिए। माइकिङ पनि "सभ्य नेपाल निर्माण गरौ, खुल्ल दिशा बन्द गरौ" भन्दै अघी बढीरहेको थियो। अनी म दंग पर्दै नियाल्दै थिए त्यो द्रिश्य बिहानको अलार्म घडीले मेरो निन्द्रा अकस्मात् भंग गरिदियो। बजिया अलार्म भन्दै उठे। कती मिठो सपना देखिरहेथे, बिउँझीनुपर्यो। कती मिठो नेपालको कल्पना थियो, तोडीनुपर्यो।

अचेल हरेक राजनैतीक पार्टिहरु तुल, ब्यानर, पर्चा, पाम्फ्लेट, माइकिङ, इत्यादी गरेर नयाँ नेपाल बनाउने बच्चा गरिरहेका छ। ति सबै नारासगै "खुल्ल हग्न बन्द गर्ने अभियानलाई पनि जोडतोडले अगाडि बढाउदै लैजाउ" भन्ने एक वाक्य नारा पनि थपिदिने हो भने वा तेस्तै केही सामाजिक नारा जोडीदिने हो भने यिनले साच्चै नयाँ नेपालको पारीकल्पना गरेका रहेछन भनेर सबैले विश्वास गर्ने थिए कि? यसो हुदो हो त क्या काइदा हुन्थ्यो गाठे। म सरसफाइ क्षेत्रको सामाजिक अभियान्ता भएकोले मात्र यो भनिरहेको छैन, एक सचेत नेपालीको हैसियतले पनि भनिरहेको छु।

आगे गफाडी बहादुरहरुको जो मर्जी।
जय राष्ट्र, जय खुदिमुक्षे!!! 


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ODF Movement in Sindhupalchowk and GSF Program: Through My Sight

By: Phurba Sange Moktan

- Sankar Tamang, aged 36, Sipapokhare-4 stopped to defecate in open and built the safe and low cost toilet and also labored to his mother’s and others in the village to construct latrines.
- Man Bahadur Pahari, aged 74, Thokarpa-3 convinced his community people for not defecating in open. This selfless efforts finally counted by declaring the VDC as ODF.
- Majhi baje, aged 99, Pangretar VDC now feels comfortable to defecate in toilet. It has become one of his daily rituals as well.

The glimpses given up are some hidden stories behind the success so far in Sindhupalchwok district. Sindhupalchowk is the district which is connected with Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, and just 80 Km away to Chautara, district headquarter, more than half population used to defecate in open just one year ago. Data from WSSDO-Sindhupalchowk says, 61.35 % of the population from Sindhupalchowk didn’t have toilet access in their houses by July, 2012 with the strong discrepancy with water supply coverage, i.e. 84.43 %. (Source: District Sanitation Strategy Plan-2013, Sindhupalchowk). After DWASHCC formed on June 2012 and GSF started to work from July 2013, the data on sanitation started to change in Sindhupalchowk. Number of coverage has reached above then 60 % in a whole in district database exceeding more than 90 % coverage in improved sanitation in first phase of 37 VDCs. The rough data says after the intervention of GSF Program in Sindhupalchwok, more than 11000 toilets have been constructed upto June end, 2013 in 37 VDCs directly. The indirect outcomes are yet to count in the district.

 The rough figure below clearly shows that the movement has really taken into account in Sindhupalchwok. By the date, 10 VDCs have been declared as ODF in which 9 of them are the GSF Program facilitated VDCs.



Fig.1: Trend showing toilets (rough data) hike in 37 GSF 1st phase VDCs during one year (Source: SEBAC/Janahit)


Table 1: VDCs declared as ODF in which 9 of them are the GSF Program facilitated VDCs.

VDCs
Date of ODF Declared
Remarks
Jethal
Mangir 24, 2069 (December 10, 2012)
GSF Supported
Sunkhani
Magh 4,2069 (January 17, 2013)
GSF Supported
Kubinde
Magh 5,2069 (January 18, 2013)
GSF Supported
Pangretar
Magh 23,2069 (February 5, 2013)
GSF Supported
Pedku
Magh 25, 2069 (February 7, 2013)
GSF Supported
Shikharpur
Chaitra 5, 2069 (March 18, 2013)
GSF Supported
Thokarpa
Jestha 22,2070 (June 05, 2013)
GSF Supported
Kalika
Jestha 22,2070 (June 05, 2013)
GSF Supported
Nawalpur
Ashad 3, 2070 (June 17, 2013)
SUAAHARA Supported
Yamunadanda
Ashad 12,2070 (June 26, 2013)
GSF Supported

Behind the effective acceleration of ODF movement in Sindhupalchowk, I have found following success factors such as:
- Sound leadership and drive from DWASHCC-Sindhupalchwok;
- Most VWASHCCs are being active and owned the program as Government initiatives;
- NGO Partners have become successful to bridging the efforts from various sectors and follow up regularly;
- People are made eager to build latrine and stop to defecate in open through both reward/motivation and pressure approaches;

However, furthermore some strategies should be taken to further accelerate the movement effectively like:
- Focusing on Handwashing with soap part of hygiene issues could reduce the half of the health risk.
- ODF declaration is not the final product but the process to achieve total sanitation. So, future plan after ODF (i.e. Post ODF) resulting to implement and monitor for sustainability is also very crusial.
- Difficult geography has perceived as constraint for second funding in Sindhupalchowk. However, facilitation of SEBAC/Janahit and CoDeF/MANK (GSF Partners-1st phase) in 35 VDCs has already created vibration in the district. So, efforts should be made by considering the fact and tapping the strength of CDECF as local NGO (GSF Partner-2nd phase) will make the ODF movement, a grand achievement in the district.

Consequently, District Sanitation Strategy/Action Plan has already in place in Sindhupalchowk. Local authorities have already owned the program as national governmental program. And even the communities are feeling for the need of healthy and dignified living. Thus, GSF Program facilitation has seemed successful for raising momentum of Open Defecation Free in Sindhupalchowk and should maintain the momentum for resulting to declare the whole district as ODF district by the due date.

Jay ODF, Jay Nepal.

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Success Tale-"Nisha Sundas is now healthy and happy"

By: Phurba Sange Moktan
During the busy time of Monsoon, Nisha Sundas, aged 30, inhabitant of Thulopakhar VDC and her family was busy to build the toilet nearby of her house. “Some triggerers came to my house and showed me how we are having our and neighbours’ faeces,” She said with shyness in her face, “Which convinced me and my family to build latrine.” If it is seen in deep, it was not very easy to build the latrine to the lady like her with two children to feed by herself and fractured leg since three months, not able to bear the treatment cost. According to her, her husband is laboring in Kathmandu but not supporting the family.

She along with her children and her brother in law started to dig the substructure and cover the superstructure by themselves with no third person. “Previously we thought we couldn’t, but while we started, we got confidence to make it possible,” She said with smile. She was previously (some years back) given a pan by one organization. However, the pan was not been used for long due not feeling the need. But this time, they used the pan, labored by them, use the locally existing resourses and built the safe and improved toilet by investing just NRs. 300, which was used for purchasing of pipe. Now, two families of altogether 12 members are using the toilet.

She feels proud and happy and it’s obvious, her family is safe and healthy then previous. Even her children said that they use to wash their hands with soap after using toilet. The question was asked if the safe toilets are not built by the neighbours, how her family could be safe, because there is still the chance for contamination? Then, she replied with smile, “Though we are this poor, it has become possible to build one, then, why not them? We will convince them.” Hat’s off to Nisha Sundas for her guts. 

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स्वच्छतामा फर्मुला र यसको उपादेयता 

By: Phurba Sange Moktan
आजको दुनियाँ फर्मुलाको दुनियाँ भएको छ। यसो गर्यो फर्मुला बन्यो, उसो गर्यो फर्मुला नै बनायो। त्यसपछी बनाउने भन्दा प्रयोगकर्ताहरुलाई फर्मुलाको चिन्ता। एकताका तालिमको दौरनमा चाइनिज विस्पर (Chinese Wishper) भन्ने खेल खेल्ने क्रममा "रामको गाउ साह्रै सुन्दर छ, रामले १० वटा गाई पालेको छ, राम खुशी छ।" भन्ने वाक्य कानेखुसी गर्न लगाउदा अन्तमा "राम चोर हो" भन्ने वाक्य निस्केको थियो। जुन प्रायजसो फर्मुलाहरुको प्रयोगकर्ताहरुमाझ निस्कने परिणाम हो। यस्तै फर्मुलाहरुको शिकार हात धुने बानी (स्वच्छता)को अभ्यास पनि अछुतो रहन सकेको छैन। 

हामी बिकासका साझेदारहरु (म पनि एक हुँ) आफुलाई खुबै जान्ने भन्ठान्छौ र कुनै पनि कुरा आफ्नो तरिकाबाट समुदायमा छर्न चाहन्छौ। अनि के भु हुन्थ्यो र परिवर्तन? हामी हात भिजाउनेबाट हात धुनेतिर किन र कसरी जाने भन्ने कुराको आभास नगराइकननै 6×6 बिधीबाट हात धुन-धुवाउन तम्सिहाल्छौ। अनि उक्त बिधिलाई गीताको गायात्री मन्त्र बनाइदिईहाल्छौ। जब गु पुछ्न पातको ठाउमा हात प्रयोग गर्न थालियो नेपालमा, अर्थात चर्पिको प्रयोग हुन थाल्यो (ज्यादै राम्रो), तब हातमा गु लाग्ने निश्चित प्राय भैगयो। कसैले पन्जा प्रयोग गर्छन् भने त्यो उसको कुरा। यसो हुँदा 6×6 बिधिलाई कोरा प्रयोग गर्न उत्साहित गर्नुको सट्टा "हात मिची मिची साबुनपानी प्रयोग गरेर गु लाग्न सक्ने भागहरुमा धुनुपर्दछ।" भन्ने सरल सन्चार दिन सके मानिसहरुले बुझ्न सक्ने थिए कि हातको औलाको कुन कुन भागहरु महत्वपूर्ण छ। र किन मिचिमिची साबुनपानीले धुनुपर्दछ। नत्रभने पहिलो बिधी, दोस्रो बिधी भन्दै समुदायहरु मन्त्र बनाउने चक्करमा अल्झिहाल्छन, केही समयपछी दिक्क मान्दछन र यसबाट मुक्ती पाउन तम्सिन्छन।

भनिन्छ, कुनै पनि ब्यवहारहरु २२ पटक निरन्तर गरिएमा स्वत: बानी बन्दछ। त्यसैले, हात धुने बानीलाई सरलीकरण गर्न सकिएन भने ब्यवहारमा परिवर्तन हुन सक्दैन र साधारण भन्दा साधारण बानी पनि बिकास गर्न गाह्रो पर्दछ। 

यसर्थ, स्वच्छतालाई फर्मुलीकरण गर्नु भन्दा पनि गु लाग्न सक्ने सम्भाबित औलाको भागहरु औल्याईदिन र सबै भागलाई मिचीमिची सफा गर्नुपर्ने कुराको अवगत गराइदिन सके कति प्रभाबकारी हुने थियो होला। थोरै समय बढी लागे बरु मन पर्ने गीत गाउदै हात धुन सकिने कुराको टिप्स दिदै (मैले जस्तै) प्रयोग मैत्री बनाउन सकिने हो भने के यसले समाज श्वस्थ बन्न टेवा नपुर्याउला त? आगे सबैलाई फर्मुलीकरण गर्दै समाजलाई मेसिनरी बनाउन अग्रसर फर्मुला मास्टसाबहरुको जो मर्जी भनी दिया।    

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"हात भिजाउने भर्सेज हात धुने" बानी 

By: Phurba Sange Moktan
हात धुने भन्ने शब्द नेपालीहरुको शब्दकोषमा पटक्कै नौलो शब्द होइन। कुनै पनि शुभ काम गर्नु अघि मुस्लिमहरुले हात धुने गर्दछन। हिन्दू र बौद्धीष्ट समुदायमा पनि हात धुने परम्परा निकै अघिदेखी नै चली आएको छ। सामान्यतया भन्नुपर्दा खाना खाने बखतमा हात धोएर खाने गरिन्छ, नेपाली समाजमा। र त्यो भन्दा पनि बढी खाना खाइसकेपछी हात धुने गरिन्छ। अब प्रश्न आउन सक्छ, कुरो चुरो के त उसोभए? म यहा सबैलाई निबेदन गर्न चाहन्छु, मैले उठान गर्न खोजेको बिषय साचो अर्थमा हात धुने बारेको हो। 

जती पनि हाम्रा व्यबहारहरु छन, जहाँ हामी हात धोइरहेका हुन्छौ। वास्तवमा त्यो हात भिजाएको मात्र हो, न कि हात धोएको। 

अब झन प्रश्न तेर्सिन सक्छ, कसरी? हात धुनुको खास अर्थ हातको मैलाहरु पखाल्ने हो। धार्मिक हिसाबले हेर्दा फोहरबाट मनको फोहर पखाल्ने हो। प्रष्ट भाषामा भनौ, हातमा बिभिन्न माध्यमबाट गु लागेको हुन्छ, जुन खानबाट बच्न हात धुने। नेपाली समाजमा गु गरिसकेपछी पानी प्रयोग गरी पखाल्ने गरिन्छ। भनाइको अर्थ, हाम्रो हातमा गु तासिएको हुन्छ, जुन पानीले मात्र पखाल्दा केही अङ्श गएपनी धेरै अन्श बाँकी नै रहन्छ। जब हातको गु हात धुदा जादैन भने तेस्लाई हात धोएको कसरी मान्ने? त्यो त केवल हात भिजाएको मात्र हो। 

त्यसैले, साबुनपानीको प्रयोगबाट हात मिचिमिची गु लाग्ने सम्भाबित भागहरुमा सफा गर्न सकियो भने मात्र साचो अर्थमा हात धोएको मान्न सकिन्छ। कि कसो मित्रहरु? 

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गु गजल

By: Phurba Sange Moktan

गु बहार हो उपकार हो, जीवजातीको कारीगर हो।  
गु नै श्वास्थ्य, प्रतिस्ठा अनी मोक्ष प्राप्तिको आधार हो।

जाने गु मोहर हो, नजाने गु फोहर हो। 
प्रयोगमा आए रोपनी आना धुर हो, खेर गयो झुर भो।

चिन्तन, मनन, छलफल गरौ अपार। 
बुझौ गु मा शक्ती छ, गु को महिमा अपरम्पार। 

जय गुदेव!!!   :)

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बजार सरसफाइ कार्यक्रम र मेरो बुझाई

By: Phurba Sange Moktan
गणतन्त्र दिबसको अवसरमा हिजो चौतरा बजार सरसफाइमय भयो। सरसफाइ कार्यक्रम बिभिन्न सरोकारवाला निकायहरुको सहकार्यमा गज्जबसग सम्पन्न गरियो। सम्पूर्णलाई बधाई!!!

यसैबिच फोहोरको थुप्रो नियल्दा मुख्यगरी गुठ्खाको खोलहरु, चक्लेटका बोक्राहरु र प्रयोग भईसकेका रिचार्ज कार्डका टुक्राहरु फेला परे, यसबाट मेरा मनमा केही जिज्ञासाहरु पलाएर आए।

पहिलो, निकट भबिष्यमा यस ठाउका मनिसहरुमा मुख र फोक्सोको अल्सर/क्यान्सरको ठुलो चुनौती आईपर्नेछ। 

दोस्रो, यहाँका स्कुलका केटाकेटीहरुलाई घरमा तथा स्कुलमा फोहोर जहापायो त्यही नफाली कम्तिमा पनि डस्टबिन वा, निस्चित ठाउमा फाल्नुपर्छ भन्ने कुरा नसिकाईएको हुनुपर्छ। 

तेस्रो, रिचार्ज कार्डको सट्टा चर्पिको प्यान किन्न ध्यान पुग्दो हो त, आजको स्थीतीसम्ममा सिन्धुपाल्चोक जिल्लानै खुल्ला गु मुक्त भाईसक्ने थियो कि?
त्यसैगरी,  बहिरकाले सरसफाइ गरिरहदा स्थानिय बासिन्दा भनाउदाहरु गोजीमा हात हालेर बसिरहेका थिए, तर एकाद दुई बाहेक कोही होस्टेमा हैसे गर्न आएनन। यसबाट मैले निकालेको निष्कर्ष : दिनकै मात्र हैन बिहान बेलुका २ पटक सरसफाइ चलाये पनि स्थानियहरुको बुद्धीको बिर्को नखोलेसम्म बजार सफा हुने वाला छैन। यो नियती चौताराको मात्र हैन अपितु सिङ्गो राष्ट्रको नै नियती भएको छ। तैपनी, स्थानियहरुलाई जगाउने यो सरसफाइ कार्यक्रम राम्रो पहल भने अवश्य हुन सक्दछ।

बाँकी भगवान भरोसा।।। जय होस्।।। 

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Perspectives on WASH convergence with Nutrition and Health

By: Mr. Phurba Sange Moktan

Nepal faced a tragedy of diarrhea outbreak across the 25 Mid- and Far-Western districts in 2009 resulting to 59,000 cases and almost 400 related deaths within few months. The situation in the affected districts still remains critical, which are reporting more than 450/1000 diarrheal incidence in each year (Source: HMIS-2010/11).  

Even these days, the affected children in these districts are facing high risks of morbidity that are being associated with acute malnutrition.  Acute malnutrition among under-five children in Nepal is a silent emergency.  Wasting, a measure of acute malnutrition has remained practically unchanged over the last decades. According to NDHS-2001, 2006 and 2011, the wasting was estimated at 11 %, 13 % and 11 % respectively. WHO has also estimated that mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is 5 to 20 times higher then well-nourished children (Source: WHO-2007). NDHS-2011 says that 91,000 under-five children in Nepal are suffering from severe acute malnutrition. The two major causes for malnutrition include inadequate nutrient intake such as PEM, Micronutrient Deficiency Malnutrition, et cetera and nutrition loss and mal-absorption through infections such as Diarrhea, Cholera, Pneumonia, Measles, et cetera.  Malnutrition impairs a child’s immune system making it more susceptible to diseases and more likely to become further malnourished due to loss of appetite, nutrient mal-absorption, and increased nutrient requirements. Thus, the vicious cycle continues with inadequate nutrition and disease infection resulting to malnutrition and even death. Every year 10,500 under five children loss their life just from the preventable diarrhea (Source: UNICEF, 2006), which is directly linked with the issue, malnutrition in Nepal. More than 53 % women leave home for answering nature’s call only under the cover of darkness due to the lack of latrine accessibility (NMIP-2010). They simply have to suppress it until dark. This practice is even harder on young brides. For fear of developing an urge for the toilet during “unseasonable hours”, they take minimal amounts of food, thus affecting their health and that of the child in their womb if they also happen to be pregnant in the mean time (Source: Kamal Adhikari: Sanitation in Nepal-Past, Present and Future-2012). It further deteriorates the nutritional status of neonates and infants. 

From the decades, several projects and programs have been focusing to improve the nutritional status and improve health of the children and mothers so at to save the life of children, infants and neonates. However, without taking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) improvement in consideration and taking the integrated efforts at least from WASH and Health, Nutrition improvement alone can’t be effective. There will still be lagging the two third of the effectiveness of the program. If the hands are still not safe, if the foods are not hygienic and if the people still defecate in open, no one can assure healthy living even with the proper nutrition supplementation. Recently UNICEF, UN-Habitat and WHO in partnership with Government of Nepal are having efforts in integrated Nutrition, WASH and Health intervention to manage severe acute malnutrition and infections in children has come to know a landmark intervention for this. However, this should continue for long term program framework of every health center with ensuring access to user-friendly WASH facilities for every nutrition improvement and health promotion program. Furthermore, child mortality issue is the social issue. So, multi-sectoral ownership is also very crucial for the effective intervention. Hence, all nutrition related interventions need to be well integrated with the sanitation Strategic Plan/Plan of Action of district, municipality and VDC level WASH Coordination Committees for institutionalizing nutrition as a cross-cutting issue of national development and bringing the impacts at scale.

The Great freedom fighter, Mahathma Gandhi said, “Change begins from home”. So, every home should commit to live healthy. Nepal has been marching ahead through the revolutionary process of Open Defecation Free (ODF) Campaigns targeting to achieve universal sanitation coverage by 2017. This pertinent issue of nutrition can be linked with ODF movement so that every home will take spontaneous steps to live healthy with improved hygiene and sanitation condition. If every home commits to defecate only in latrine hygienically and wash hands with soap properly in critical times, the half of the causative factors perishes immediately. Hence, WASH convergence with Nutrition and Health is not only the concern of public health, but also the key for living with dignity, prosperity and happiness.

Photo credit: UN-Habitat, Nepal
Other credit: Special thanks to Mr. Kamal Adhikari, Sociologist from GSF Program-UN-Habitat for providing technical edit for the article. 

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युवाहरुलाइ खुल्ला पत्र 

नेपाललाई खुल्ला दिशा मुक्त पार्न सैयोउ समाजसेबी लागिपरेका छन, हजारोउ बालबालिकाहरु लागि परेका छन, लाखौं त जनसमुदायहरु नै लगिपरेका छन। कैयोउ अपाङ्गता भएका ब्यक्तीहरुले खुलेर चर्पिको लागि आवाज उठाइरहेका छन। अहिले ब्रिद्ध ब्रिद्धा हरु पनि यो आवाजमा सामेल भये। उनिहरु सबैलाई मेरो सादर क्रितग्यता/




तैपनी,

तैपनी,

तैपनी,



देशका कर्णधार तथा ३५ % जनसंख्या ओगटेको युवा समुदायमा किन हलचल छैन? किन? 

साच्चै भन्ने हो भने अब नेपालका सभ्य र पढेलेखेका युवाहुरुको महत्व TECHNOLOGY को साथै TOILETOLOGY मा चाहिएको छ। अनी हुन्छ साचो परिवर्तनको सुरुवात।  

लौ न त अब १ TOILET मात्र भए नि थप्ने वाचा गरौ।
अनि मात्र बन्छ देश। अनि मात्र हुनेछ युवा देशको कर्णाधार। 

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Great Happiness to Share...

Someone said, "Some moments are nice, some moments are nicer, some moments are worth writing." I think, this is the perfect that moment to write.

Heard some days back about landslide emergency on Far-Western Region of Nepal. Felt bad, felt sentiment. Then, headed to explore the ways. However, still got confused n how??? what a dilemma!!!

Immediately I along with my other team mates gather to discuss how to support the victims and affected families from our own levels. So that we can be able to wash away at least some tears. Came to the point to start from self. Great Idea. In a moment, we collected about 2 thousand rupees. I felt there the pleasure of giving. At that moment I felt a saying from Mr. Bikashananda, "Transforming self, transforming world." By the end of today (June 18, 2012) the collected amount tolled more than a lakh. Really good moment. Indeed, great happy moment to share.

Though monetary value is not much, ownership left far more legacy. It not only showed team efforts and hard-works, but also great satisfaction with more inspiration to step up. 

What a great happiness to share!

Cheers!!!

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I HAVE A DREAM.

By: Phurba Sange Moktan

In a long run to life, one day I got a quote, “Dream is not that seen with sleep but the one that don’t let you sleep.” It made me to think not only once but repeatedly pushed me to think and it circulated me recurrent high voltageS. Then, finally made me realize that I HAVE A DREAM.

I looked through wikis. “Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep” is the statement wiki says. Image, idea, emotion et cetera. When I was a child, I dreamed about flying in the sky like bird. I just thought of seeing from sky. There, my horizon was bigger than the earth horizon. I went beyond sky, beyond hills, beyond anything. Sadden things happened to me while growing up. My dreams are going down. I was getting big with making my dream little. At a point, I realized what I dreamt about was lost somewhere. Then, it took me years to gather it. Now this is making me to feel like “get up, stand up…..” by Mr. Bob.

There is a moment, when everyone realizes that s/he has a dream. The moment came to me. Luckey me. 0-o….. Now, I am very proud to say, I HAVE A DREAM. Dream to change myself. Dream to change the world. Dream to say in front of the world that I AM THERE FOR YOU. 
I HAVE A DREAM.

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युवालाई युवा शैलीमै बुझ्ने प्रयत्न गरौ


लेखक: फुर्बा साङ्गे मोक्तन
"युवा" भन्ने बित्तिकै तपाईंको मनमा के कुरा देखिन्छ? पक्कै पनि जोश जागरले भरिएको जे गर्न नि उत्साहित जमात। यो सरसर्ती हेर्दाको बुझाई हो। यदि परिभाशागत हिसाबले हेर्ने हो भने युवा त्यतिमा मात्र सिमित छैन। नेपाल सरकारको परीभाशालाई सापटी लिने हो भने १६ देखी ४० सम्मको उमेरसमुहलाई युवा मान्न सकिन्छ। यस अर्थमा हेर्ने हो भने केवल जोश जागर मात्र हैन, यस भित्र सामाजिक रुपमा स्थापित र रास्ट्रीय सामाजिक-आर्थिक-राजनैतीक अर्थतन्त्र धानिरहेको समुह पनि धेरै पर्न आउछ।  

मैले बुझेसम्म युवालाई पारीभासित गर्नुको मुख्य उद्देस्य भनेको युवाहरुलाई बढी भन्दा बढी अवसर र नेत्रित्व बिकास गर्ने आधार मिलोस भनेर हो।  तर यदि माथि भनिएका समुह पनि युवामा परेपछी सम्पूर्ण अवसरहरुको कति प्रतिशत अन्यले पाउलान त जसलाई साच्चै त्यसको आवश्यकता छ? त्यसैगरी, नेपालजस्तो देश जहाँ ३४ बर्ष ओसत आयु भएको जिल्ला पनि अझै छ, युवा उमेरनै पुर ज्युन नपाउनु कटु यथार्थ हो। अझ कतिपय अवस्थामा त बजै, आमा र नातिनी सम्म पनि युवा नै भएको द्रिस्टान्त नभेटिएका पनि हैनन। यस्तो अवस्थामा १६-४० को के अर्थ?


अब कुरालाई थोरै मोडेर मैले आफ्नो शैलिमा जोड्न चाहे। सिधा भाषामा मैले बुझ्दा, युवा त्यो हो जो माथि कोट ढल्काए पनि तल चाँही जिन्स नै लगाउनु पर्ने। मैले धेरै क्षेत्रका युवाहरुसग प्रतक्ष, परोक्ष रुपमा काम गर्ने मौका पाए, चाहे त्यो युवा संस्था होस्, सन्जाल होस्, रोटर्याक्ट होस् अथवा पेशागत संघसस्था नै किन नहोस्, सबैमा कोट र जिन्स लगाउने जमात देखे, जुन जमात साच्चै जोसिलो छ, जागरिलो छ, मनमा केही गर्नुपर्ने इछ्याशक्ती पनि छ र जसलाई उत्प्रेरणाको सानो अन्श पनि आवश्यक छ। र सबैभन्दा महत्वपूर्ण कुरो युवाको मनबाट सोचिदिनुपर्ने टट्कारो आवश्यकता पनि छ। यदि कोही कोट नलगाउने युवा साथीहरु यो लेख पढ्दै हुनुहुन्छ भने माइन्ड नगर्नु होला, मेरो भनाइको तात्पर्य फरक सोच र शैलीसगमात्र सम्बन्धित छ। यसलाई गहिरिएर नियाल्ने हो भने लगभग १८ देखी २८ सम्मको जमात यसभित्र पर्न आउछ। जसलाई प्रयजसो बुढाहरुको जमातले आफ्नै शैलिमा मात्र बुझेको मैले पाएको छु। फरक समयका युवाहरुको फरक शैली, सोचाइ र आवश्यकता हुने हुँदा समता राख्न नसक्दा यस्तो भएको हो भन्ने मलाई लाग्छ। त्यसैले, म आग्रह गर्न चाहन्छु सम्पूर्ण अग्रजहरुलाई, युवा जोश र जागरले संसार परिवर्तन गर्न सक्छन भन्नुहुन्छ, तर सधैं युवाहरुलाई अक्षम र सिकाइको चस्माबाट मात्रै हेर्ने प्रयत्न गर्नुहुन्छ। कृपया केही गर्ने अवसर नदिइकन केवल उमेरकै मात्र प्रश्न गरेर युवा कलात्मक र श्रीजनाशिलतालाई सन्कुचित नबनाउ, युवाले संसार परिवर्तन गरेको उदाहरणलाई एकपटक मनन पनि गरिहेरौ। 

म फेरी बिषयलाई अर्को शिराबाट हेर्न चाहन्छु। युवा सामाजिक परिवर्तनका सम्बाहक (social change maker) हुन भन्ने कुरा आजको दिनसम्म आईपुग्दा सम्पूर्णले मनन गरिसकेका छन। तापनि युवाहरुलाई आज पनि किन परिचालन (mobilization) गर्ने भन्ने जस्ता तुच्छ शब्दहरु प्रयोग गरिन्छन? भन्नलाई परिवर्तनका बाहक भन्ने तर कार्यन्वयन गर्ने बेलामा चाँही परिचालन गर्न खोज्ने? के युवा भनेको बस्तु हो र परिचालन हुनलाई? युवा परिचालन (youth mobilization) भन्ने शब्दले मलाई घोच्ने गर्छ। म पनि एक प्रतिनिधि पात्र भएकोले अन्य युवा साथीहरुलाई पनि यस्तो अनुभव भएको हुनुपर्छ। त्यसैले, युवा सहभागीता (youth engagement) भन्ने शब्दलाई जोड दिउ। 

सबै युवाहरु सम्पूर्ण ढंगले सक्षम हुन्छन भन्ने हुँदै हैन। युवाहरु आँफै पनि सिक्ने प्रकृयामा गईरहेका हुन्छन। तापनी "युवा-युवा अबधारणा"लाई मुर्त रुप दिन सकियो भने युव शैलीमा कुनै पनि दिगो सामाजिक परिवर्तन युवाको सहभागीतामा गराउन सकिन्छ। यसको उदाहरणको रुपमा भर्खरै गत शनिबार "पस्चिम पाइला" नामक युवा सन्जालले अन्य ४ युवा संस्थाहरु सग मिलेर गरेको खानेपानी, सरसफाइ तथा स्वास्थ्य नेत्रित्व पदयात्रा (WASH Leadership Hiking) लाई लिन सकिन्छ, जहाँ युवा रमाइलोका साथसाथै नेत्रित्व बिकास र क्षेत्रगत सिकाइ आदान प्रदान गर्ने सम्मको पहलकदमी भएको थियो। यो त सानो उदाहरण मात्र हो, यदि साच्चै दिगो परिवर्तनको अपेक्षा गर्ने हो भने गाउ गाउमा, कुना कुनामा यस किसिमको अवधारणा लैजानुपर्ने आवश्यकता छ, जहाँ युवा एक महत्वपूर्ण सरोकारवालाको रुपमा सम्पूर्ण तह तप्कामा आफ्नो भूमिका प्रस्तुत गर्न सक्षम हुनेछन।     

तसर्थ, युवालाई युवाकै नजरबाट हेर्ने तथा युवा सहभागिता समाज परिवर्तनको महत्वपूर्ण पाटो रहिआएको छ, साचो अर्थमा मनन गरौ। महत्वपूर्ण सरोकारवालाको रुपमा रहेको युवालाई, "युवा-युवा अबधारणा" बाट बुझ्ने प्रयत्न गरौ। 

धन्यवाद!!!


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WASH related Emergencies and Youths’ Role

By: Mr. Phurba Sange Moktan
Emergencies like, Diarrhea, Cholera, Typhoid, Dengue, etc are major public health concern in Nepal. In a year of 2009, there was an outbreak of diarrheal diseases in several districts of mid and far western region of Nepal which claimed more than 300 innocent lives. This sound like unfortunate, however, is the result of ignorance.

Preparedness vs. Responses:
The risks of more than 80 % of communicable diseases like Diarrhea, Cholera, etc. can be prevented if proper attention is given to WASH promotion. Millennium Development Goal (MDG) has set goal to achieve 50 by 15 for water and Sanitation and Government of Nepal (GoN) has set goal to achieve 100 by 17. GoN has included right to water and sanitation under fundamental right on the draft constitution article 20(5). However, the challenging part is to implement it successfully. Similarly, wrong perception on community mindsets and dependent awareness among local people is creating emergencies on grass root communities. Furthermore, lack of ownership for the free goods distributed is deteriorating the situation. So far as the national scenario, mostly priorities are centered on response approaches rather than preparedness. Even Rapid Response Team from Government is seemed active during response but Pre-emergency preparedness is not much given priorities. Similarly, Grass root sensitization requires most. In addition, preparedness approach with continue campaigning and follow up to high risk periods can be keys to prevent outbreaks. Furthermore, “Total Sanitation” movement is much appreciated however along with that Healthy Community Movement is also very much crucial for the sustainable solutions.

Youths’ role:
Youths are the key stakeholders for social change. Everybody knows that they are the most energetic and proactive age of Life and critical mass for action. Youths are the present leaders. They constitutes more than one third of the total national population in Nepal. Therefore, Youth should be the one for the social transformation and development. In order to prevent, prepare and respond any kinds of emergencies, youths can play following roles in ahead:
       Set an example and Start from home;
       Scale up the voices and motivate others;
       Transfer knowledge and skills to others;
       Volunteer effort on preparedness and responses initiatives;
       Grass root sensitization on WASH Promotion and Emergency preparedness;
       Act as a campaigner to prepare and response on any kinds of outbreaks/emergencies;
       Youth Advocacy and Policy Sensitization for healthy communities
In addition, youths can play remarkable efforts on promotion of WASH in order to prevent, prepare and respond any kinds of emergencies as key stakeholders what they need is to be given priority and counted as key stakeholders in decision/policy making levels.


For more details, feel free to contact me @ moktanphurba20@gmail.com @9851141328


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WHY TOILETS DONOT CONSTRUCT ?


By: Phurba Sange Moktan
These days words like, “School Led Total Sanitation” is repeating as proverb on the mouth of people who are working on the sector of Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH). It’s very hard to apply practically, rather than just to preach about creating Open Defecation Free (ODF) Communities.

Though the people from rural communities do not know about the importance of sanitation and toilet, urban and peri-urban communities know at least, a little about such issues. But the intended progress has not been seen, actually is the pity part. Pakucha Community, just one and half kilometer far from Dhulikhel Municipality consists only 40 percent toilets. People from the community are expecting aids from any NGOs and Municipality to construct the toilets on their houses even still in these days as well.

Sanu Maya Tamang (name changed) of Pakucha Community replies the question for reasons behind not building toilets with anger and irritation that she has not been getting support from Dhulikhel Municipality. Thus, sanitation is not becoming a part of life in communities even in these days as well. It has still deep rooted that the toilets should be built by government or, NGOs. One can see not only the deprived group but also the people having disc antenna and mobile for each family on this queue. What a pity? If look at another part, the dynamics of not constructing toilets even after providing the required materials can be seen in bunch. Phusre Tamang (name changed), Thakle Community of Dulikhel prefers to defecate at open field after getting toilet construction materials eight month back. After looking these two but different scenarios, one who is working on this sector should take the lesson to change the module for working and review the policy for sanitation promotion.

Last but not the least, focusing on the ownership and community led initiatives rather than imposing knowledge and skill that one have, convincing people to understand the toilet as their part of life as like the house, having efforts on making uniformity on aids and empowering community leaders and managers about the negative impacts due to lack or, improper sanitation and toilet use will only supports the movement for total sanitation in Nepal.

Originally written by: Mr. Ram Bilash Panta, Project Officer, ENPHO
Translated to english by: Mr. Phurba Sange Moktan

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Leaders…!!!

By: Phurba Sange Moktan
May 16, 2011, Monday

“Leadership is an action, not position” – Donald H. Mc. Gannon

Internalizing the quote from Mr. Donald, one can understand the definition of leadership. Few can feel and understand with their personal life sharing moments within the quote which is about creating things rather than take it granted.

One might has the concept in mind as the extraordinary person and qualities about leader and leadership, actually is not, which is tried to be justify through the writings here. This is based on conversation with some ordinary people with extraordinary qualities that was explored during the sharing conversation with them.

“I can do” is the primary core factor for progressive leadership that follows further one to make a changer maker in the society. I am the person, the place is here and the time is now” is mostly the guiding tool for leaders so far as we found. Also, being example is the most motivating factor in leadership that will not only make one different than others, but also encourage others”, Says one leader of my inquiry conversation. Generally, one get inspired and follows the way to be followed by the leaders blindly, rather than sit down, think twice, analyze the context and for the most seeing one’s self leadership quality and feel it, which is, in fact is a biggest constraints among young people. If one asked to be told about the qualities to be effective leaders, they will says some points very quick such as confident, helpful, passion, consistency to work, adequacy in knowledge,  positive, friendly, etc. and always tried to seek in other people, rather than getting insight of inner self. What a delusion!!!

So, understanding the cores, being youth we, including other youths need to address some points:
  • Youths need to be pragmatic so that they can put in to action;
  • Professional education (academic knowledge, same working field, key contribution) is the key;
  • Continuous efforts unless the goal is achieved is very necessary;
  • Let’s say simply no to drugs addiction and abuse; and
  • Spiritual awareness will help most to build the effective leadership.
Furthermore, behind every ordinary people, there is something extraordinary. So, let’s recognize it, internalize it and replicate it for good deeds. Indeed, what we expect the kind of leadership is our role to be like. What do you think!!!

Written by:
Joint effort of Mr. Phurba Sange Moktan and Ms. Kamala KC
(Based on the interview taken with some leaders)


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The rising trend of Biosand

-Phurba Sange Moktan
Rupsagar Chhetri, 45, has not been to his father in law’s at Jalthal for 10 year because of the water with bad smell. “It’s not only me, but many son in laws were afraid to go to Jalthal” he said. If they have to go, they used to buy mineral water from the market.

Bhagwati Gurung, Makurmadi, Pathariya-9 also hesitated to visit her parent’s. She used to face problems like changing colour of clothes while washing. They were also suffering frequently from the public health problems like conjunctivitis, fever, rashes, jaundice and diarrhea. But after introducing a biosand technology, villagers are being relieved from the problem. In different places of Jhapa namely Birtamod, Sharanmati, Surunga and Panchgachhi are nowdays producing biosand filter by community people themselves for which the credit goes to two organizations, ENPHO and CAWST. Eight months ago, 14 people received training on “Water Purification and Construction of Biosand Filter”; and some of them are now introducing it professionally in their communities.

Nutan Poudel, 27 and Arjun Poudel, 32 are two examples from Prakashpur, Jhapa who are running biosand business. Till date, they have sold 120 filters for Rs. 2000 each. The manufacturing cost ranges from Rs. 800 to Rs. 1200. “It has increased our economic status and respect”, said Nutan. They are also making community households aware in different places. Bijeshwor Mandal, AHW, Haldibari-9 was very impressed when he saw such the technology. “I will gift it to my relatives and neighbors”, Said Mr. Mandal, who has already ordered 15 biosand filters just by himself.

According to Mr. Bipin Dongol, ENPHO information about biosand filter will be accessed in the other parts of the districts as well. Mr. Kamal Baskota, biosand filter entrepreneur from Bolechwok Bazar, Jhapa is also providing filters in subsidized prices to dalits and other marginalized communities. He also requests for government support for providing biosand filters free of cost to poor and disadvantaged groups. There are 9 places in Jhapa district where the manufacturing of biosand filter is being doing.

“We will provide technical and logistic supports”, said Rajesh Adhikari, ENPHO, “Planning for expanding to Morang and Surkhet district are in process.”


- By Narendra Raule/Birtamod (translated by Phurba Sange Moktan)

Primary Source: Nepal National weekly, 29 Aug, 2010


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Misconception on Right to Water and Sanitation


               Misconception
Clarification
The right entitles people to free
water
Water and sanitation services need to be affordable for all. People are expected to contribute financially or otherwise to the extent that they can do so.
The right allows for unlimited use
of water
The right entitles everyone to sufficient water for personal and domestic uses and is to be realised in a sustainable manner for present and future generations.
The right entitles everyone to a
household connection

Water and sanitation facilities need to be within, or in the immediate vicinity of the household, and can comprise facilities such as wells and pit latrines.
The right to water entitles people to
water resources in other countries.

People cannot claim water from other countries. However, international customary law on trans-boundary watercourses stipulates that such watercourses should be shared in an equitable and reasonable manner, with priority given to vital human needs.
A country is in violation of the right
if not all its people have access to
water and sanitation

The right requires that a State take steps to the maximum of available resources to progressively realize the right.


Source: UNHABITAT 


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FACT 
QUIZ






1. What is the full form of WASH?

















1. Water,Sanitation and Hygiene
2. How many goals on Millennium Development Goal (MDG)?
2. 8
3. How many SACOSAN (South Asian Conference on Sanitation) were held so far?
3. 4
4. When was the international year of Sanitation (IYS)?
4. 2008
5. When was the National Sanitation Master Plan endorsed?
5. 2011 (2068)
6. What is the MDG goal target for Toilet coverage?
6. 53 %
7. What is the economic value for return on WASH Investment (In times)?
7. 9 times
8. What are 5F on WASH?
8. Finger, Fly, Fluid, Field, Food
9. What percent of disease risk is reduced when washed hand with soap?
9. 45 %
10. What is the coverage of washing hand in Nepal?  (Souce:2008)
10. 17 %
11. How many viruses are present on 1 gram stool?
11. 1 crore (10 million)
12. How many children die due to Diarrhoea?
12. 10500
13. What are the four key methods for Point of use (POU) of Water?
13. Boiling, filtration, chlorination and SODIS
14. What is the concentration of chlorine on PIYUSH +?
14. 0.7 %
15. What was the theme for World Water Day 2012?
15. Water and Food Security
16. How much time is required minimum to purify water on SODIS Method on a normal day?
16. 7 hours
17. What is the full form of SLTS?
17. School Led Total Sanitation
18. What is the current need for drinking water supply in Kathmandu Valley?
18. 210 MLD
19. What are 4R on Waste Management?
19. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle and Rethink
20. How many districts are declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) zone so far?
20. 2 district (Kaski and Chitwan)
21. In the world, due to diarrhoeal diseases one child is died in every …………?


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21. 15 second

















What is public policy?
Public policy is an attempt by the government to address a public issue. The government, whether it is city, state, or federal, develops public policy in terms of laws, regulations, decisions, and actions. There are three parts to public policy-making: problems, players, and the policy.
The problem is the issue that needs to be addressed. The player is the individual or group that is influential in forming a plan to address the problem in question. Policy is the finalized course of action decided upon by the government. In most cases, policies are widely open to interpretation by non-governmental players, including those in the private sector. Publicpolicy is also made by leaders of religious and cultural institutions.
Academics continue to contemplate the definition of public policy, since there is currently no consensus. The study of public policy began in 1922, when Charles Merriam, a political scientist, sought to build a link between political theory and its application to reality. Numerous issues are addressed by public policy, including crime, education, foreign policy, health, and social welfare.
Source: WiseGeek.com

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प्रशासन के गर्दैछ?
प्रिय सम्पादक ज्यु,

गत शुक्रबार,६ साउन २०६८ मा प्रकाशित राजु अधिकारीद्वारा लिखित "प्रशासन बासले खोला छेक्दैछ" भन्ने लेखले मेरो मन साह्रै छोएको छ।

नेपालजस्तो राष्ट्र जो सधैं बाहिरको चेपमा पर्छ, आज आफ्नै देशको खोलाले पनि दु:ख दीईरहेको छ। जसभन्दा पनि सरकार-प्रशासनको द्रुत प्रतिकृया हुन नसक्दा स्थिती झनै गम्भिर भईरहेको छ। त्यती ठुलो बाढीले धनजनको यती ठुलो छ्यती गर्दा पनि बासै मात्र प्रयोग गर्न सक्नु कती बिघ्न लाचरी हो यो सरकारको?
सरकारको काम भनेको जनताको सुरक्षा गर्ने हो, तर  आज कैयो जनताहरु बिस्थापित हुने स्थितिसम्म पुग्दा पनी किन उल्लेख्य पहल गर्न सकेको छैन?

जनताहरुले स्काभेटरको प्रयोग गरी खोलाको धार परिवर्तन गर्न सकिन्छ भन्दा पनि स्थानिय प्रशासनले खासै ध्यान दीइनरहेको स्थितिमा उस्को ध्यान खिच्नको लागि सबैले केही न केही गर्नु पर्ने अवस्था आएको जस्तो देखिन्छ।

अत: तत्कालै कदम चाल्नु पर्ने आवस्यकता औंलाउदै म सबै नागरिक समाजहरु माझ यो मुद्धामा आ-आफ्नो एकबद्धता जनैदिनु हुन हार्दिक अनुरोध पनि गर्न चाहन्छु। धन्यवाद!!!

- फुर्बा साङे मोक्तान


2 comments:

  1. This is what Nepal really needs right now. I hear everyone complaining and blaming and pointing fingers to about anyone. The youth of Nepal have dreams and they care about their homeland. Phurba Sange Moktan, I am so proud of you. When I see your energy, it takes me back to my younger days and I repent on having spent it so worthlessly. Keep up with your enthusiasm and it won't go to waste. As I am noticing you so will thousands of others. Hope to meet you someday and exchange ideas and come up with more. Thank you bhai for showing the way!!! Chandan Lama

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    Replies
    1. Chandan dai,

      This is really inspiring. Thank you very much. Definitely We will meeet and share ideas and come up with more. cheers!!!

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